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3 Operating costs

Direct costs

In CHF million   1.1.–31.3.2019   1.1.–31.3.2018
Customer premises equipment and merchandise   277   306
Services purchased   156   112
Costs of obtaining a contract   83   87
Costs to fulfill a contract   3   13
Traffic fees of foreign subsidiaries   91   114
International traffic fees   50   47
National traffic fees   23   25
Total direct costs   683   704

Indirect costs

In CHF million   1.1.–31.3.2019   1.1.–31.3.2018
Salary and social security expenses   706   713
Other personnel expense   18   10
Total personnel expense   724   723
         
Information technology cost   59   67
Maintenance expense   74   70
Rental expense     52
Energy costs   29   28
Advertising and selling expenses   41   40
Consultancy expenses and freelance workforce   38   43
Administration expense   22   27
Allowances for receivables   21   20
Miscellaneous operating expenses   164   156
Total other operating expense   448   503
         
Capitalised self-constructed assets   (90)   (83)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment   (3)   (1)
Miscellaneous income   (21)   (19)
Total capitalised self-constructed assets and other income   (114)   (103)
         
Total indirect costs   1,058   1,123

Capitalised costs of self-constructed assets include personnel costs for the production of technical installations, the construction of network infrastructures and the development of software for internal use.