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3 Operating costs

Direct costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.9.2019   1.1.–30.9.2018
Customer premises equipment and merchandise   744   819
Services purchased   446   421
Costs to obtain a contract   244   250
Costs to fulfill a contract   14   30
Traffic fees of foreign subsidiaries   286   324
International traffic fees   221   201
National traffic fees   68   74
Total direct costs   2,023   2,119

Indirect costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.9.2019   1.1.–30.9.2018
Salary and social security expenses   2,018   2,053
Other personnel expense   46   45
Total personnel expense   2,064   2,098
         
Information technology cost   185   204
Maintenance expense   233   236
Rental expense     150
Energy costs   87   83
Advertising and selling expenses   153   147
Consultancy expenses and freelance workforce   112   131
Administration expense   75   73
Allowances for receivables   60   53
Miscellaneous operating expenses   502   485
Total other operating expense   1,407   1,562
         
Capitalised self-constructed assets   (267)   (245)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment   (12)   (7)
Miscellaneous income   (119)   (69)
Total capitalised self-constructed assets and other income   (398)   (321)
         
Total indirect costs   3,073   3,339

Capitalised self-constructed assets include personnel expenses for the manufacture of technical installations, the construction of network infrastructure and the development of software for internal use.