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3 Operating costs

Direct costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.6.2019   1.1.–30.6.2018
Customer premises equipment and merchandise   497   544
Services purchased   305   280
Costs to obtain a contract   169   172
Costs to fulfill a contract   8   24
Traffic fees of foreign subsidiaries   197   216
International traffic fees   118   111
National traffic fees   45   49
Total direct costs   1,339   1,396

Indirect costs

In CHF million   1.1.–30.6.2019   1.1.–30.6.2018
Salary and social security expenses   1,378   1,406
Other personnel expense   33   31
Total personnel expense   1,411   1,437
         
Information technology cost   121   136
Maintenance expense   157   150
Rental expense     99
Energy costs   59   55
Advertising and selling expenses   103   93
Consultancy expenses and freelance workforce   75   89
Administration expense   49   50
Allowances for receivables   44   37
Miscellaneous operating expenses   340   334
Total other operating expense   948   1,043
         
Capitalised self-constructed assets   (180)   (167)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment   (4)   (4)
Miscellaneous income   (91)   (43)
Total capitalised self-constructed assets and other income   (275)   (214)
         
Total indirect costs   2,084   2,266

Capitalised self-constructed assets include personnel expenses for the manufacture of technical installations, the construction of network infrastructure and the development of software for internal use.