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3 Operating costs

Direct costs

In CHF million   1.1.–31.3.2021   1.1.–31.3.2020
Customer premises equipment and merchandise   248   201
Services purchased   174   160
Costs to obtain a contract   63   72
Costs to fulfill a contract   25   25
Network access costs of swiss subsidiaries   76   67
Network access costs of foreign subsidiaries   94   101
Total direct costs   680   626

Indirect costs

In CHF million   1.1.–31.3.2021   1.1.–31.3.2020
Salary and social security expenses   695   685
Other personnel expense   21   15
Total personnel expense   716   700
         
Information technology cost   57   59
Maintenance expense   60   54
Energy costs   30   29
Advertising and selling expenses   42   39
Consultancy expenses and freelance workforce   31   31
Administration expense   15   16
Allowances for receivables and contract assets   21   22
Miscellaneous operating expenses   166   157
Total other operating expense   422   407
         
Capitalised self-constructed tangible and intangible assets   (106)   (88)
Own work for capitalised contract costs   (14)   (9)
Gain on sale of property, plant and equipment   (3)  
Miscellaneous income   (16)   (10)
Total capitalised self-constructed assets and other income   (139)   (107)
         
Total indirect costs   999   1,000

Capitalised self-constructed tangible and intangible assets include personnel costs for the manufacturing of technical installations, the construction of network infrastructure and the development of software for internal use.